Zogzas while others (1994) thought you to apparent thickness relies on the volume shrinking coefficient and moisture stuff (Dining table step three, Eq

Zogzas while others (1994) thought you to apparent thickness relies on the volume shrinking coefficient and moisture stuff (Dining table step three, Eq

Noticeable thickness (?b) patterns

Centered on Krokida and you will Philippopoulos (2005) , obvious density are a purpose of wetness articles, version of strong, and you will air volume ratio. The majority of the activities getting forecasting visible thickness used in the newest literary works try empirical; simple or theoretic activities simply have come recommended because of the a restricted level of authors ( Rahman while some 1996 ). The new obvious density designs have been formulated based on dampness blogs (X), as opposed to because of the outcomes of drying out temperature; not too many think diminishing, though it was significant on almost all circumstances ( Moreira although some 2000 ; ).

18), where the volumetric shrinking coefficient (?) is a linear function of moisture content. Boukouvalas and others (2006) mention that the parameters ( , ?) included in Eq. 18 of Table 3 depend on the drying method and processing conditions; as such, they propose Eq. 19, which considers ? to be a function of , ?w, and X.

Moreira while others (2000) hold you to definitely apparent thickness is available with the obvious density of strong ( ) and bulk off liquids ( ) early in drying while the a guide to have initially frequency (Eq. 20, Table 3).

In Eq. 18 and 19, X= 0 is taken as a reference; in Eq. 20, the reference is X0= moisture content at the onset of drying.

The most recent theoretical model (Eq. 21) was put forth by Khalloufi and others (2010) . They consider ?b to be a function of the initial porosity of the material (?), X, ?w, ?s, ?(X), and collapse [?(X)].

Once the ?(X) and you can ?(X) certainly are the characteristics of water content, he’s determined by control requirements, the nature of the equipment are dehydrated, the new drying out method, together with drying phase ( Khalloufi although some 2010 ).

The collapse picture (Eq. 27) recommended from the Khalloufi while others (2009) claims that collapse setting usually initiate in one and you will stops from inside the no.

When the question is actually a good rubbery condition, diminishing makes up almost totally to have moisture losses, additionally the quantity of the materials decreases linearly with water articles ( ). However, low-temperatures dehydration out of foods inhibits new moisture articles throughout the center of the thing away from ever being much more than regarding the exterior, reducing inner worry, and consequently, cracking ( Bai while others 2002 ).

An incorrect computation off ?(X) and you will ?(X) will offer go up to help you a blunder regarding the computation out of apparent thickness. This happens often, as most of authors think that diminishing try linear ( Zogzas and others 1994 ; Moreira and others 2000 ; ), otherwise they can fit they to help you an extra-degree polynomial ( Khalloufi and others 2010 ).

Future patterns should make an effort to portray the fresh new choices from apparent occurrence with deeper precision, taking into consideration X together with thermal reputation of the information presented being dehydrated.


The tendencies of density with respect to moisture content and drying temperature have been discussed within the framework of currently available theories of second-order phase changes, structural changes, and changes in chemical composition occurring in the mass and heat transference processes. The majority of the empirical and theoretical equations representing true density do not fit the concave-down tendencies of certain materials. Equations for calculating apparent density app incontri over 60 based on shrinking and collapse are not reliable, as errors arise from failing to consider minimal variations in volume at the end of the drying process. It is recommended that variations in ?s and ?w as a function of the internal temperature of the material, according to the drying conditions (X, T), be included to yield a better fit to the tendencies of density with respect to X.

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